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Patronage

What Is Patronage? A Critical Reexamination

64 Public Administration Review • January | February 2009 Domonic A. Bearfi eld is an assistant professor in the George Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M University.

What Are Refunds?

What Are Patronage Refunds ? Donald A. A t torney Frederick Gene Ingalsbe, retired Director Informa tion and Educa tion Staff Patronage refunds cooperative form of business. thing distinctive about the The phrase is a tipoff to what a cooperative is, how it operates, and the special relationship ...

Patronage or Merit? The Choice of Bureaucratic Appointment ...

Patronage or Merit? The Choice of Bureaucratic Appointment Mechanisms JamesR. Hollyer y First Draft: January 2009 Current Draft: May 2009 Abstract The means by which governments select bureaucraticocials are likely to be closely associated with the performance of state bureaucracies.

What are Patronage Refunds?

What are Patronage Refunds? Cooperative Information Report 9 Agricultural Cooperative Service United States Department of Agriculture Article summarized by Travis West, Coordinator, Ohio Cooperative Development Center Principles Patronage refunds directly relate to the cooperative principles ...

INCOME TAX TREATMENT OF COOPERATIVES: Patronage Refunds and ...

Abstract INCOME TAX TREATMENT OF COOPERATIVES: Patronage Refunds and other Income Issues 2005 Edition Donald A. Frederick, Program Leader Law, Policy & Governance Cooperative tax rules are a logical combination of the unique attributes of a cooperative and the income tax scheme in the Internal ...

Qualified Patronage Dividends

Qualified Patronage Dividends Cooperatives generally issue "Qualified written notices of allocation" to their members. As discussed in the Farmer's Tax Guide, at least 20% of the patronage dividend or payment must be in cash to be a "Qualified written notice of allocation.

Patronage, Islam and the Rise of Localism in Central Asia

Patronage, Islam, and the Rise of Localism in Central Asia Patronage, Islam and the Rise of Localism in Central Asia

Patronage, Groups andPivotal Voting - Alastair Smith Bruce ...

Patronage, Groups andPivotal Voting Alastair Smith Bruce Bueno de Mesquita January 2010 Very Preliminary Abstract In contrast to traditional approaches to patronage politics, in which politi

Taxation of Patronage Dividends from Worker Cooperatives: Are ...

1 Taxation of Patronage Dividends from Worker Cooperatives: Are They Subject to Employment Tax? By: Gregory R. Wilson 1 A. The Issue Are patronage dividends paid by worker cooperatives subject to self-employment tax?

Campaigning for a Job: Obama for America, Patronage, and ...

1 . C. ampaigning for a Job: Obama for America, Patronage, and Presidential Appointments . During each presidential election supporters of the different campaigns endorse, raise money, and work for the candidates.